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Important references
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This section will include only a selection of books and papers of broad scope, revision of higher taxa, recent papers of particular interest, etc. The zoological literature of Southwest Asia is vast in scope and time and can't be dealt with in this modest website.

Anderson, S. C. 1979. Synopsis of the turtles, crocodiles, and amphisbaenians of Iran. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 41(22[2 March]):501-528, figs. 1-11, 12-14 [maps].


Anderson, S. C. 1999. The Lizards of Iran. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Oxford, Ohio. 442pp.


Anderson, S. C. in press. Lizards. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, Inc., New York.


Arnold, E. N., O. Arribas, and S. Carranza. 2007. Systematics of the Palearctic and Oriental lizard tribe Lacertini (Squamata: Lacertidae: Lacertinae), with descriptions of eight new genera. Zootaxa (1430): 1-86.


Baloutch, M. and H. G. Kami. 1995. Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Press. Tehran. Iran. 177pp. (In Farsi).


Bauer, A. M. 2003. On the identity of Lacerta punctata Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus Euprepis Wagler, 1830, and the generic assignment of Afro-Malagasy skinks. African Journal of Herpetology, 52: 1-7.


Bauer, A. M., T. Jackman, E. Greenbaum, and T. J. Paenfuss. 2006. Confirmation of the occurrence of Hemidactylus robustus Heyden, 1827 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) in Iran and Pakistan. Zoology in the Middle East, 39: 59-62.


Billing, H. & B. Schätti. 1984. Vorläufige Mitteilung zum Subspezies-Problem

bei Vipera lebetina (Linnaeus, 1758). Salamandra, Bonn, 20: 65-69.


Bischoff, W. 1993.  Elaphe hohenackeri - Transkaukasische Kletternatter. In: Böhme W . (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I., Schlangen (Serpentes) I. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden (317-330).


Barth, D., D. Bernhard, G. Fritzsch, U. Fritz. 2004. The freshwater turtle genus Mauremys (Testudines, Geoemydidae) – a textbook example of an east-west disjunction or a taxonomic misconcept? Zool. Scr., 33: 213-221.


Bosch, H. A. J. in den. 1999. The status of Lacerta mostoufii Baloutch, 1977 (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Zoology in the Middle East, Heidelberg 19:13-15, table 1.


Bostanchi, Hamid , Steven C. Anderson, Haji Gholi Kami, and Theodore J. Papenfuss. 2006. A New Species of Pseudocerastes with Elaborate Tail Ornamentation from Western Iran (Squamata: Viperidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, Volume 57, No. 14, pp. 443–450, 13 figs., 1 table.


Brandstätter, F. 1995. Eine Revision der Gattung Psammophis mit Berücksichtung der Schwesterngattungen innerhalb des Tribus Psammophiini (Colubridae: Lycodontinae). Diss. Dokt. Naturw., Univ. Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Teil I : 1-334; T eil I: 335-480.


Buskirk, J.R., C. Keller, A. C. Andreu. 2001. Testudo graeca Linnaeus, 1758 – Maurische Landschildkröte, pp. 125-178. In: Fritz, U. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Band 3/IIIA: Schildkröten I. Wiebelsheim, Aula-Verlag.


Carranza, S., E. N. Arnold, and J. M. Pleguezuelos. 2006. Phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of two Mediterranean snakes, Malpolon monspessulanus and Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Squamata, C olubridae), using mtDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, San Diego, 40: 532-546.


Chkhikvadze, V.M., N. G. Amiranashvili, C. H. Ataev. 1990. [New subspecies of tortoise from the southwestern Turkmenistan]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Ser. Biol. 1, 72–75 (in Russian).


David, P. and I. Ineich. 1999. Les serpents venimeux du monde: systématique et Répartition. Dumerilia, Paris, 3: 3-499.


De Haan, C. C., 1996. Malpolon monspessulanus (Hermann, 1804) - Europäische Eidechsennatter. In: Böhme, W . (Ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Band 3/II Schlangen (Serpentes) II (665-756).


Doczenko, I. B. 1985. Revizia roda Eirenis (Reptilia, Colubridae). Soobshehenie I. Vosstanovlenieroda Pseudocyclophis Boettger, 1888. [Revision of the genus Eirenis (Reptilia, Colubridae). Communication 1. Resurrection of the genus Pseudocyclophis Boettger, 1888.]. Vestnik Zoologii, Kiev, 1985: 41-44. [in Russian].


Doczenko, I. B., 1989. A review of the genus Eirenis (Reptilia, Colubridae). [Communication 2. Structure of the genus Eirenis]. Vestnik Zoologii, Kiev, 1989: 23-29. [in Russian with English summary].


Ernst, C. H., R. G. M. Altenburg, R. W. Barbour. 2000. Turtles of the World. World Biodiversity Database, CD-ROM Series, Windows, Version 1.2. Amsterdam, Biodiversity Center of ETI.


Fahimi, H., T. J. Papenfuss, and S. C. Anderson. In press. Geographical distribution: Scincus mitranus. Herpetological Review.


Feldman, C. R, J. F. Parham. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics of Emydine turtles: taxonomic revision and the evolution of shell kinesis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 388–398.


Firouz, Eskandar 2005. The Complete Vertebrate Fauna of Iran, by , I. B. Taurus & Co. Ltd. London and New York. Xiv + 322 pp.  $90.


Fritz, U., 1992. Zur innerartlichen Variabilität von Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). 2. Variabilität in Osteuropa und Redefinition von Emys orbicularis orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) und E. o. hellenica (Valenciennes, 1832). Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 47: 37-77.


Fritz, U., 1994. Zur innerartlichen Variabilität von Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). 4. Variabilität und Zoogeographie im pontokaspischen Gebiet mit Beschreibung von drei neuen Unterarten. Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 48: 53-93.


Fritz, U. and P. Havaš. 2006. Checklist of Chelonians of the World. CITES Nomenclature Committee and the German Agency for Nature Conservation. German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and Museum of Zoology Dresden. 230 pp.


Fritz, U., A. K. Hundsdörfer, P. Široký, M. Auer, H. Kami, J. Lehmann, L. F. Mazanaeva, O. Türkozan, and M. Wink. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity leads to incongruence between morphology-based taxonomy and genetic differentiation in western Palaearctic tortoises (Testudo graeca complex; Testudines, Testudinidae). Amphibia-Reptilia. 28: 97-121.


Fritz, U.  and T. Wischuf. 1997. Zur Systematik westasiatisch-südosteuropäischer Bachschildkröten (Gattung Mauremys). Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 49: 223-260.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The Amphibian Tree of Life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History:370.

Golubev, M. L and T. S. Sattorov. 1992. [On Intraspeciflic Structurea nd IntraspecificR elations of the Ear-'Folded Toad Agama Phrynocephalus mystaceus (Reptilia, Agamidae)]. Vestnik Zoologii 19(3):26-32. (In Russian).


Griffith, H., A. Ngo, and R. W. Murphy. 2000. A cladistic evaluation of the cosmopolitan genus Eumeces Wiegmann (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 7(1[January-April]):1-16, 16.


Guicking, D., R. Lawson, U. Joger and M. Wink. 2006. Evolution and phylogeny of the genus Natrix (Serpentes: Colubridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 87, 127–143. With 5 figures.


Harris, D. J. and E. N. Arnold. 2000. Elucidation of the relationships of spiny-footed lizards, Acanthodactylus sp. (Reptilia: Lacertidae) using mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology, with comments on their biogeography and evolution. Journal of Zoology, London, 252: 351-362.


Helfenberger, N. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Old World ratsnakes based on visceral organ topography, osteology and allozyme variation. Russian Journal of Herpetology, Moscow, 8: 1-64.


Herrmann H.-W., U. Joger, P. Lenk, and M. Wink. 1999. Morphological and

molecular phylogenies of Viperines: conflicting evidencies ? - In: Joger U. (ed.), Phylogeny and systematics of the Viperidae. Kaupia, Darmstadt, 8: 21-30.


Herrmann, H.-W., U. Joger, and G. Nilson. 1992. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of viperine snakes I . General phylogeny of European vipers (Vipera sensu stricto). Proceedings of the 6th Ordinary General Meeting, SEH , Budapest, pp. 219-224.


Herrmann, H.-W., U. Joger, G. Nilson, and C. G. Sibley. 1987. First steps towards a biochemically based reconstruction of the phylogeny of the genus Vipera. In: Van Gelder, J. J., H. Strijbosch, and P. J. M. Bergers (eds.). Proceedings of the 4th Ordinary General Meeting, SEH, Nijmegen: 195-200.


Joger, U., S. A. Kalyabina-Hauf, S. Schweiger, W. Mayer, N. L. Orlov, and M. Wink. 2003. Phylogeny of Eurasian Vipera (Subgenus Pelias). 12th Ordinary General Meeting S.E.H., St. Petersburg, Russia, 12-16 August 2003. Abstracts: 77.


Joger U., A. Teynié, and D. Fuchs. 1988. Morphological characterization of Vipera wagneri Nilson and Andrén, 1984, with first description of the males. Bonn. zool. Beitr., Bonn, 39: 221-228.


Keough, J. S. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of elapid snakes and a consideration of their biogeographic history. Biological Society of the Linnaean Society, 63:177-203, 4 figs.


Khan, M. S. 2006. Amphibians and Reptiles of Pakistan. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Florida, xvi + 311 pp., 180 col. pls.


Khan, M. S. 2008. Review of the morphology, ecology, and distribution of geckos of the genus Cyrtopodion, with a note on generic placement of Cyrtopodion brachykolon Krysko et. al., 2007. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 6 No. 1 pp. 79~86.


Kluge, A. G. 1985. Notes on gekko nomenclature (Sauria: Gekkonidae). Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 59: 95–100.


Kluge, A. G. 2001. Gekkotan lizard taxonomy. Hamadryad 26(1[July]):1-209.


Knight A., L. D. Densmore II, and E. D. Rael. 1992. Molecular systematics of the Agkistrodon complex. In: Campbell, J. A. and E. D. Brodie (eds.), Biology of the Pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas, (49-70).


Krysko, K. L., H. Rehman, and K. Auffenberg. 2007. A new species of Cyrtopodion  (Gekkonidae: Gekkoninae) from Pakistan. Herpetologica, 63(1):100–113.


Latifi, M. 1984. [The Snakes of Iran]. Iran Department of the Environment, Tehran, Iran. 221 pp. (In Farsi [Persian].).


Latifi, M. 1991. The Snakes of Iran, English edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio. viii + 159 pp., 24 text-figs; 25 col. pls., 3 tables. (Translated from the Iranian edition by Sajadian, Sepideh; volume editors, A. Leviton and G. Zug).


Latifi, M. 2000. Snakes of Iran. 3rd Ed. Department of Environment; Tehran, Iran. 478 pp. (In Farsi).


Le, M., C. J. Raxworthy, W. P. McCord, and L. Mertz. 2006. A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular. Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 517-531.


Lenk, P., S. Kalyabina, M. Wink, and U. Joger. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among the true vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae) inferred from Mitochondrial DNA sequences – Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, San Diego, 19: 94-104.


Lenk, P., U. Joger, and M. Wink. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among European ratsnakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons - Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 22: 329-339.


Leviton, Alan E., Steven C. Anderson, Kraig Adler, and Sherman A. Minton  1992.  Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles.  Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.  vii + 252 pp., 32 col. pls., 1 b&w pl., 23 text-figs.

Litvinchuk, S. N., L. J. Borkin, D. V. Skorinov, and J. M. Rosanov. 2008. A new species of common toads from the Talysh Mountains, south-eastern Caucasus: genome size, allozyme, and morphological evidences. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 15(1): 19 – 43.


Macey J. R., N. B. Ananjeva,  Y. Wang,  and T. J. Papenfuss. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among Asian gekkonid lizards formerly of the genus Cyrtodactylus based on cladistic analyses of allozymic data: monophyly of Cyrtodactylus and Mediodactylus,” Journal of Herpetology, 32(2), 258 – 265.


Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, B. S. Tuniyev, N. L. Orlov, and T. J. Papenfuss. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics, tRNA evolution and historical biogeography in anguid lizards and related taxonomic families. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12(3[August]):250-272, figs. 1-5.


Mausfeld, P and A. Schmitz. 2003. Molecular phylogeography, intraspecific variation and speciation of the Asian scincid lizard genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Reptilia: Scincidae): taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Organism Diversity and Evolution 3:161–171, figs. 1–2.


Mausfeld, P., A. Schmitz, W. Böhme, B. Misof, D. Vrcibradic, and C. F. D. Rocha. 2002. Phylogenetic affinities of Mabuya atlantica Schmidt, 1945, endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil): Necessity of partitioning the genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241(2002):281-293, figs. 1-2, tables 1-3.


Moravec, J., M. Franzen, and W. Böhme. 2006. Notes on the taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution of the Trachylepis (formerly Mabuya) aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) complex. Pp. 89–93 in: M Vences, J. Köhler, T. Ziegler, and W. Böhme, eds., Herpetologia Bonnensis II. (Includes figs. 1–5.) Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.  


McDiarmid, R.W. J. A. Campbell, and T. A. Touré. 1999. Snake Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Vol.1. The Herpetologists’ League, Washington D.C., 511 pp.


Nagy, Z. T., R. Lawson, U. Joger and M. Wink. 2003. Molecular systematics of racers, whipsnakes and relatives (Reptilia: Colubridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Research 42 (2004) 223–233.


Nagy, Z. T., J. F. Schmidtler, U. Joger, and M. Wink. 2003. Systematik der Zwergnattern (Reptilia: Colubridae: Eirenis) und verwandter Gruppen anhand von DNA-Sequenzen und morphologischen Daten - Salamandra, Rheinbach, 39: 149-168.


Nazarov, R. A. and M. Rajabizadeh. 2007. A new species of angular-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtopodion (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae) from south-east Iran (Sistan-Baluchistan Province). Russian Journal of Herpetology 14(2): 137 – 144.


Nilson, G. and C. Andrén. 1984. A taxonomic account to the Iranian ratsnakes of the Elaphe longissima species-group. Amphibia-Reptilia, Leiden, 5: 157-171.


Nilson, G. and C. Andrén. 1986.. The mountain vipers of the Middle East - The vipera xanthina complex (Reptilia, Viperidae). Bonn. zool. Monogr., Bonn , 20: 1-90.


Nilson, G. and C. Andrén. 1988. Vipera lebetina transmediterranea, a new subspecies of viper from North Africa, with remarks on the taxonomy of Vipera lebetina and Vipera mauritanica - Bonn. zool. Beitr., Bonn, 39: 371-379.


Nilson, G. and C. Andrén. 1997. Evolution, systematics and biogeography of Palaearctic vipers. In: Thorpe, R .S., W. Wüster, and A. Malhotra (eds.). Venomous snakes: ecology, evolution and snakebite - Symp. Zool. Soc. London, 70: 31-42.


Nilson, G. and C. Andrén. 2001. The meadow and steppe vipers of Europe and Asia - the Vipera (Acridophaga) ursinii complex. Acta zool. Acad. Scient. hung., Budapest, 47: 87-267.


Nilson, G., B. S. Tuniyev, C. Andrén, N. L. Orlov, U. Joger, and H-W. Herrmann. 1999. Taxonomic position of the Vipera xanthina Complex. In: Joger, U . (ed.), Phylogeny and Systematics of the Viperidae - Kaupia, Darmstadt, 8: 99-102.


Nilson, G., B. S. Tuniyev, C. Andrén, and N. L. Orlov. 1999. Vipers of Caucasus: taxonomic considerations. In: Joger, U. (ed.), Phylogeny and Systematics of the Viperidae - Kaupia, Darmstadt, 8: 103-106.


Nilson, G., B. S. Tuniyev, N. Orlov, M. Höggren, and C. Andrén. 1995. Systematics of the vipers of the Caucasus: Polymorphism or sibling species ? – Asiatic Herpetological Research, Berkeley, 6: 1-16.


Nilson, G. and N. Rastegar-Pouyani. 2007. Walterinnesia aegyptia Lataste, 1887 (Ophidia: Elapidae) and the status of Naja morgani Mocquard 1905. Russian Journal of Herpetology 14(1): 7 – 14.


Orlov, N. L. and A. V. Barabanov. 1999. Analysis of nomenclature, classification and distribution of the Agkistrodon halys - Agkistrodon intermedius complexes: a critical review - Russian Journal Herpetology, Moscow, 6: 167-192.


Parham, J.F., J.R. Macey, T.J. Papenfuss, C.R. Feldman, O. Türkozan, R. Polymeni, and J.L. Boore. 2006. The phylogeny of Mediterranean tortoises and their close relatives based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museum specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38:50–64.


Parham, J. F., O. Türkozan, B. L. Stuart, M. Arakelyan, S. Shafei, J. R. Macey, Y. L. Werner, and T. J. Papenfuss. 2006. Genetic Evidence for Premature Taxonomic Inflation in Middle Eastern Tortoises. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Fourth Series, 57(33): 955–963, 2 figs., 1 table.


Perälä, J., 2001. A new species of Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the Middle East, with implications for conservation. Journal of Herpetology 35, 567–582.


Perälä, J., 2002. The genus Testudo Linnaeus, 1758 sensu lato (Testudines: Testudinidae): Phylogeny, Taxonomy, Conservation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol, School of Biological Sciences.


Perälä, J., 2002. Morphological variation among Middle Eastern Testudo graeca L., 1758 (sensu lato), with a focus on taxonomy. Chelonii, 3: 78-108.


Perälä, J., 2002. The genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae): phylogenetic inferences. Chelonii, 3: 32-39.


Perälä, J., 2004. Testudo [graeca] buxtoni Boulenger, 1920, pp. 11-12. In: Guyot-Jackson, G. (ed.), Numéro spécial Testudo. Manouria, 7 (22). 


Perälä, J. 2004. Tortoise systematics: A critique of a recent paper by Van der Kuyl et al. (2002). Herpetological Journal 14:51–53.


Pieh, A., U. Fritz, and R. Berglas. 2002. New data on morphology, distribution and nomenclature of Testudo graeca armeniaca Chkhikvadze & Bakradze, 1991. Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 22: 329-345.


Rastegar-Pouyani, N., S. M. Johari, H. Parsa, and E. Rastegar-Pouyani. 2007. Field Guide to the Reptiles of Iran (Volume 1: Lizards). Razi University Press. Kermanshah. Iran. 139p+119 color plates.


Schätti, B. 2004. A preliminary contribution to Platyceps najadum (Eichwald, 1831) and systematic status of Coluber atayevi Tunijev & Shammakov, 1993 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae) - Rev. suisse Zool., Genève, 111 (3): 525-538.


Schätti, B. and A. Agasjan. 1985. Ein neues Konzept fur den Coluber ravergieri-C. nummifer-Komplex (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae) - Zool. Abh. staatl. Mus. Tierk., Dresden, 40: 109-123.


Schätti, B., I. Baran, and Ph. Maunoir. 2001. Taxonomie, Morphologie und Verbreitung der Masken-Schlanknatter Coluber (s.l.) collaris (Müller, 1878). Rev. suisse Zool., Genève, 108: 11-30.


Schätti, B. and C. McCarthy. 1987. Relationships of the snake genera Pythonodipsas Günther and Spalerosophis Jan. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 38(3):265–268.


Schätti, B. and C. McCarthy. 2001. Coluber (sensu lato) schmidtleri n. sp. from the southern Zagros Mountains in Iran. Herpetozoa 14(1/2[30 June]):81–89, figs. 1–5.


Schätti B. and C. McCarthy. 2004. Saharo-Arabian racers of the Platyceps rhodorhachis complex - description of a new species (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae). Rev. suisse Zool., Genève, 111: 691-705.


Schätti, B. and P. Monsch. 2004. Systematics and phylogenetic relationships of Whip snakes (Hierophis Fitzinger) and Zamenis andreana Werner, 1917 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae). Rev. suisse Zool., Genève, 111: 239-256.


Schätti, B. and A. Stutz. 2005. Morphology and systematic status of Coluber karelini mintonorum Mertens, 1969 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae). Revue suisse de Zoologie 112(2[June]):409–420, fig. 1 [map], col. pl. 1.


Schätti B., A. Stutz, and C. Charvet. 2005. Morphology, distribution, and systematics of the slender racer Platyceps najadum (Eichwald, 1831) (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae) - Rev. suisse Zool., Genève, 112: 573-625.


Schätti, Beat, and Urs Utiger. 2001. Hemerophis, a new genus for Zamenis socotrae Günther, and a contribution to the phylogeny of Old World racers, whip snakes, and related genera. Revue suisse de Zoologie 108(4[December]): 919–948, figs. 1–10, pl. 1.


Schmidtler, J. F. 1993. Zur Systematik und Phylogenie des Eirenis modestus-Komplexes in Süd-Anatolien (Serpentes, Colubridae) - Spixiana, München, 16: 79-96.


Schmidtler, J. F. 1997. Die Zwergnattern (Eirenis modestus-Komplex) des Antitaurus in Süd-Anatolien und ihre geographischen Beziehung zur begleitenden Herpetofauna - Salamandra, R heinbach, 33: 33-66.


Schmidtler, J. F. and I. Baran. 1993. Eirenis modestus (Martin, 1838) – Kopfbinden Zwergnatter. In: Böhme, W . (Ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I Schlangen (Serpentes), (279-292).


Schmitz, A., P. Mausfeld, and D. Embert. 2004. Molecular studies on the genus Eumeces Wiegmann, 1834: Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic implications. Hamadryad 28(1 & 2[February]): 73–89.


Schultz, K . D  1996. A monograph of the Colubrid snakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger.  Ed. Koeltz, Königstein, 439 pp.


Sindaco, R. and V. K. Jeremčenko. 2008. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic. 1. Annotated checklist and distributional atlas of the turtles, crocodiles, amphisbaenians and lizards of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina, Italy, 579 pp., 248 col. photos, 226 maps, many unnumbered text-figs.


Slowinski, J. B., R. Lawson. 2005. Elapid relationships. In: Donnelly, M. A, B. I. Crother, C. Guyer, M. H.Wake, and M. E, White, eds. Ecology and Evolution in theTtropics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 174–189.


Smith, H. M., and D. Chiszar. 2006. Dilemma of name-recognition: Why and when to use new combinations of scientific names. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 1:6-8.


Spinks, P.Q., H. B. Shaffer, J. B. Iverson, and W. P. McCord. 2004. Phylogenetic hypotheses for the turtle family Geoemydidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32: 164-182.


Steinfartz S, M. Veith, and D. Tautz. 2000. 'Mitochondrial sequence analysis of Salamandra taxa suggests old splits of major lineages and postglacial recolonizations of Central Europe from distinct source populations of Salamandra salamandra. Molecular Ecology, (9), 397-410.  


Szczerbak, N. N. and M. L. Golubev. 1986. [Gecko Fauna of the USSR and Adjacent Regions]. Nauka Dymka, Kiev, (In Russian).


Szczerbak, N. N. and M. L. Golubev. 1996. Gecko Fauna of the USSR and Adjacent Regions. [English edition translated from the Russian by M. L. Golubev and S. A. Malinsky; A. E. Leviton and G. R. Zug, Eds.]. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.


Tokar, A. A. 1989. Review of the genus Eryx (Serpentes, Boidae) based on osteological findings - Vestnik Zoologii, Kiev, 1989 (4): 46-55. [in Russian].


Tokar, A. A. 1990. Taxon. Snake genus Eryx USSR Neighboring Countries - P hD Dissert, Inst. Zool. Kiev, 296 pp. [in Russian].


Tokar A. A., 1996. Taxonomic revision of the genus Gongylophis Wagler 1830: G. colubrinus (L. 1758) (Serpentes Boidae). Trop. Zool., Firenze, 9: 1-17.


Tokar, A. A., and F. J. Obst. 1993. Eryx jaculus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Westliche Sandboa. Pages 35–53 in Wolfgang Böhme, ed., Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, vol. 3/I: Schlangen (Serpentes) I (Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae 1: Colubrinae). (Includes figs. 4–6, 7–9 [maps].) AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany. (In German.)


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